What does atomic radius and ionic radius really mean to you?

Asked by Pragya Singh | 1 year ago |  67

1 Answer

Solution :-

The radius of an atom is known as the atomic radius. It quantifies the size of an atom. On the chance that the element is a metal, then its radius is termed as metallic radius, and if an element is a non-metal, then its radius is termed as covalent radius. The metallic radius can be calculated as the inter-nuclear distance between two molecules divided by 2. For instance, the inter-nuclear distance between two adjoining copper atoms is 256pm in solid copper.

Metallic radius of copper =\( \dfrac{256}{2}pm \)

= 128pm

Covalent radius can be measured as the interatomic distance between 2 atoms when they are together by a solitary bond in a covalent atom. For instance, the interatomic distance between 2 chlorine atoms of chlorine molecule = 198 pm.

Covalent radius of copper = \( \dfrac{198}{2}pm\) 

= 99pm

The radius of an ion (cation or anion) is known as ionic radius. Ionic radius is computed by measuring the inter-ionic distance between the cation and anion in an ionic crystal. Since cations are created by expelling an electron from the outermost orbit of an atom, thus cation has less electrons compared to parent atom which results in increased effective nuclear charge.

In this way, a cation is small in size than the parent atom. For instance, the ionic radius of\( Na^{+}\) ion (sodium ion) = 95pm, while the atomic radius of Na (sodium) atom = 186pm. An anion is bigger in size than the parent atom. It is because an anion is having the same nuclear charge, yet more number of electrons compared to the parent atom which results in increased repulsion within atom among the electrons which also results in decreased effective nuclear charge. For instance, ionic radius of \( F^{-}\)(fluorine ion)  = 136pm, while the atomic radius of F (fluorine ) atom = 64pm.

Answered by Pragya Singh | 1 year ago

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