A hydrogen bond is defined as an attractive force acting between the hydrogen attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of a different molecule (may be of the same kind). Due to a difference between electro-negativities, the bond pair between hydrogen and the electronegative atom gets drifted for away from the hydrogen atom. As a result, a hydrogen atom becomes electropositive with respect to the other atom and acquires a positive charge.
The magnitude of H-bonding is maximum in the solid state and minimum in the gaseous state.
There are two types of H-Bonds:
(i) Intermolecular H-bond e.g., HF, \( H_2O\) etc.
(ii) Intramolecular H-bond e.g., o-nitrophenol
Hydrogen bonds are stronger than Vander Walls forces since hydrogen bonds are regarded as an extreme form of dipole-dipole interaction.Answered by Abhisek | 1 year ago