Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people:
Nomadic and pastoralist communities
Firms trading in timber/forest produce
Kings/British officials engaged in Shikhar (hunting)
(I) Shifting cultivators: European colonists regarded shifting cultivation as harmful to the existence of forests. Also, it stood in their way of commercial timber forestry. There was always the chance of fires spreading out of control and burning down all the precious timber. Thus keeping these factors in mind the colonial government banned shifting cultivation. Many of these cultivators lost their livelihood in the process and most were also displaced from their homes in the forest.
(II) Nomadic and Pastoralist Communities: Nomadic and pastoralist communities like the Korava, Karachi, and Yerukula from the Madras Presidency lost their livelihoods. They were designated as ‘criminal tribes’ by the British authorities and were forced to work in factories, mines, and plantations under government supervision.
(III) Firms trading in timber/forest produces: The British gave European timber trading firms the sole right to trade in forest products in particular areas. Grazing and hunting by the local population were restricted by law.
(IV) Plantation owners: Vast tracts of natural forests were cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations in order to fulfil the demand for these commodities in Europe. Plantation owners, who were overwhelmingly European, were given land at a cheap rate. They were enclosed and cleared of forests, and plated with tea or coffee.
(V) Kings/ British officials engaged in hunting: The forest laws deprived forest dwellers of their means of livelihood. Before the enactment of these laws, the forest dwellers practiced hunting as a means to sustain themselves. After their enactment, they were forbidden from hunting. Hunting instead became a sport where kings and British officials equally hunted big game in huge numbers, bringing some of them to the very brink of extinction.Answered by Vishal kumar | 2 years ago
Between 1880 and 1920 forests cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:
Adivasis and other peasants users