Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What are the controls affecting the climate of India?
(ii) Why does India have a monsoon type of climate?
(iii) Which part of India does experience the highest diurnal range of temperature and why?
(iv) Which winds account for rainfall along the Malabar Coast?
(v) What are jet streams, and how do they affect the climate of India?
(vi) Define monsoons. What do you understand by “break” in monsoon?
(vii) Why is the monsoon considered a unifying bond?
(i) The factors controlling the climate of India are
4. Atmospheric Pressure
(ii) The climate of India is described as the ‘monsoon’ type. Monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year.
The monsoon type of climate is characterized by a distinct seasonal pattern. The weather conditions greatly change from one season to the other. These changes are particularly noticeable in the interior parts of the country. The coastal areas do not experience much variation in temperature though there is variation in rainfall pattern.
Four main seasons can be identified in India – the cold-weather season, the hot weather season, the advancing monsoon, and the retreating monsoon with some regional variations.
The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. The duration of the monsoon is between 100- 120 days from early June to mid-September.
(iii) The regions experiencing this phenomenon is in the northwestern part of India. The cause behind it is the Thar desert and moreover, this region does not have Ocean to moderate.
(iv) Southwest monsoon winds are responsible for rainfall along the Malabar Coast.
(v) Jet Streams are a narrow belt of high altitude (above 12,000 m) westerly winds in the troposphere. Their speed varies from about 110 km/h in summer to about 184 km/h in winter. A number of separate jet streams have been identified. The most constant are the mid-latitude and the subtropical jet stream. They cause depressions during the monsoon season.
(vi) Breaks in monsoon are related to the movement of the monsoon trough. For various reasons, the trough and its axis keep on moving northward or southward, which determines the spatial distribution of rainfall. When the axis of the monsoon trough lies over the plains, rainfall is good in these parts. On the other hand, whenever the axis shifts closer to the Himalayas, there are longer dry spells in the plains, and widespread rain occurs in the mountainous catchment areas of the Himalayan rivers.
(vii) The unifying influence of the monsoon on the Indian subcontinent is quite perceptible. The seasonal alteration of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons. Even the uncertainties of rain and uneven distribution are very much typical of the monsoons. The Indian landscape, its animal and plants life, its entire agricultural calendar, and the life of the people, including their festivities, revolve around this phenomenon. Year after year, people of India from north to south and from east to west, eagerly await the arrival of the monsoon. These monsoon winds bind the whole country by providing water to set the agricultural activities in motion. The river valleys which carry this water also unite as a single river valley unit.
Answered by Vishal kumar | 1 year ago
Give reasons as to why.
(i) Seasonal reversal of wind direction takes place over the Indian subcontinent?
(ii) The bulk of rainfall in India is concentrated on a few months.
(iii) The Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall
(iv) The delta region of the eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclones.
(v) Parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought-prone.